GENERAL APPEARANCE - Medium size, muscular and elegant, with well set body. Of proud carriage, compact and tough. Capable of great speed.
CHARACTERISTICS - Intelligent and firm of character, loyal and obedient.
TEMPERAMENT - Bold and alert. Shyness or viciousness very highly undesirable.
HEAD AND SKULL - In proportion to body. Long, well filled out under eyes and clean cut, with good depth of muzzle. Seen from above and side, resembles an elongated blunt wedge. Upper part of head flat and free from wrinkle. Top of skull flat, slight stop; muzzle line extending parallel to top line of skull. Cheeks flat, lips tight. Nose solid black in black dogs, solid dark brown in brown dogs, solid dark grey in blue dogs and light brown in fawn dogs. Head out of balance in proportion to body, dish faced, snipy or cheeky very highly undesirable.
EYES - Almond-shaped, not round, moderately deep set, not prominent, with lively, alert expression. Iris of uniform colour, ranging from medium to darkest brown in black dogs, the darker shade being more desirable. In browns, blues, or fawns, colour of iris blends with that of markings, but not of lighter hue than markings; light eyes in black dogs highly undesirable.
EARS - Small, neat, set high on head. Normally dropped, but may be erect.
MOUTH - Well developed, solid and strong with a complete dentition and a perfect, regular and complete scissor bite, i.e. the upper teeth closely overlapping the lower teeth and set square to the jaws. Evenly placed teeth. Undershot, overshot or badly arranged teeth highly undesirable.
NECK - Fairly long and lean, carried with considerable nobility; slightly convex and in proportion to shape of dog. Region of nape very muscular. Dewlap and loose skin undesirable.
FOREQUARTERS - Shoulder blade and upper arm meet at an angle of 90 degrees. Shoulder blade and upper arm approximately equal in length. Short upper arm relative to shoulder blade highly undesirable. Legs seen from front and side, perfectly straight and parallel to each other from elbow to pastern; muscled and sinewy, with round bone in proportion to body structure. Standing or gaiting, elbow lies close to brisket.
BODY - Square, height measured vertically from ground to highest point at withers equal to length from forechest to rear projection of upper thigh. Forechest well developed. Back short and firm, with strong, straight topline sloping slightly from withers to croup; bitches may be slightly longer to loin. Ribs deep and well sprung, reaching to elbow. Belly fairly well tucked-up. Long, weak, or roach backs highly undesirable.
HINDQUARTERS - Legs parallel to each other and moderately wide apart. Pelvis falling away from spinal column at an angle of about 30 degrees. Croup well filled out. Hindquarters well developed and muscular; long, well bent stifle; hocks turning neither in nor out. When standing, hock to heel perpendicular to the ground.
FEET - Well arched, compact, and cat-like, turning neither in nor out. All dewclaws removed. Long, flat deviating feet and/or weak pasterns highly undesirable.
TAIL - Preferably docked at first or second joint; appears to be a continuation of spine without material drop.
GAIT - Elastic, free, balanced and vigorous, with good reach in forequarters and driving power in hindquarters. When trotting, should have strong rear drive, with apparent rotary motion of hindquarters. Rear and front legs thrown neither in nor out. Back remains strong and firm.
COAT - Smooth, short, hard, thick and close lying. Imperceptible undercoat on neck permissible. Hair forming a ridge on back of neck and/or along spine highly undesirable.
COLOUR - Definite black, brown, blue or fawn (Isabella) only, with rust red markings. Markings to be sharply defined, appearing above each eye, on muzzle, throat and forechest, an all legs and feet and below tail. White markings of any kind highly undesirable.
Ideal height: Dogs 69 cms (27 ins) at withers
Bitches 65 cms (25½ ins) at withers
Considerable deviation from this ideal undesirable.
FAULTS - Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree.
NOTE - Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
Utility Group A.N.K.C. © January 1998
The appearance is that of a dog of medium size, with a body that is square. Compactly built, muscular and powerful, for great endurance and speed. Elegant in appearance, of proud carriage, reflecting great nobility and temperament. Energetic, watchful, determined, alert, fearless, loyal and obedient.
Size, Proportion, Substance
Height at the withers: Dogs 26 to 28 inches, ideal about 27½ inches; Bitches 24 to 26 inches, ideal about 25½ inches. The height, measured vertically from the ground to the highest point of the withers, equalling the length measured horizontally from the forechest to the rear projection of the upper thigh. Length of head, neck and legs in proportion to length and depth of body.
Long and dry, resembling a blunt wedge in both frontal and profile views. When seen from the front, the head widens gradually toward the base of the ears in a practically unbroken line. Eyes almond shaped, moderately deep set, with vigorous, energetic expression. Iris, of uniform color, ranging from medium to darkest brown in black dogs; in reds, blues, and fawns the color of the iris blends with that of the markings, the darkest shade being preferable in every case. Ears normally cropped and carried erect. The upper attachment of the ear, when held erect, is on a level with the top of the skull.
Top of skull flat, turning with slight stop to bridge of muzzle, with muzzle line extending parallel to top line of skull. Cheeks flat and muscular. Nose solid black on black dogs, dark brown on red ones, dark gray on blue ones, dark tan on fawns. Lips lying close to jaws. Jaws full and powerful, well filled under the eyes.
Teeth strongly developed and white. Lower incisors upright and touching inside of upper incisors a true scissors bite. 42 correctly placed teeth, 22 in the lower, 20 in the upper jaw. Distemper teeth shall not be penalized. Disqualifying Faults: Overshot more than 3/16 of an inch. Undershot more than 1/8 of an inch. Four or more missing teeth.
Neck, Topline, Body
Neck proudly carried, well muscled and dry. Well arched, with nape of neck widening gradually toward body. Length of neck proportioned to body and head. Withers pronounced and forming the highest point of the body. Back short, firm, of sufficient width, and muscular at the loins, extending in a straight line from withers to the slightly rounded croup.
Chest broad with forechest well defined. Ribs well sprung from the spine, but flattened in lower end to permit elbow clearance. Brisket reaching deep to the elbow. Belly well tucked up, extending in a curved line from the brisket. Loins wide and muscled. Hips broad and in proportion to body, breadth of hips being approximately equal to breadth of body at rib cage and shoulders. Tail docked at approximately second joint, appears to be a continuation of the spine, and is carried only slightly above the horizontal when the dog is alert.
Shoulder Blade - sloping forward and downward at a 45-degree angle to the ground meets the upper arm at an angle of 90 degrees. Length of shoulder blade and upper arm are equal. Height from elbow to withers approximately equals height from ground to elbow. Legs seen from front and side, perfectly straight and parallel to each other from elbow to pastern; muscled and sinewy, with heavy bone. In normal pose and when gaiting, the elbows lie close to the brisket. Pasterns firm and almost perpendicular to the ground. Dewclaws may be removed. Feet well arched, compact, and catlike, turning neither in nor out.
The angulation of the hindquarters balances that of the forequarters. Hip Bone falls away from spinal column at an angle of about 30 degrees, producing a slightly rounded, well filled-out croup. Upper Shanks at right angles to the hip bones, are long, wide, and well muscled on both sides of thigh, with clearly defined stifles. Upper and lower shanks are of equal length. While the dog is at rest, hock to heel is perpendicular to the ground. Viewed from the rear, the legs are straight, parallel to each other, and wide enough apart to fit in with a properly built body. Dewclaws, if any, are generally removed. Cat feet as on front legs, turning neither in nor out.
Smooth-haired, short, hard, thick and close lying. Invisible gray undercoat on neck permissible.
Color and Markings
Allowed Colors: Black, red, blue, and fawn (Isabella). Markings: Rust, sharply defined, appearing above each eye and on muzzle, throat and forechest, on all legs and feet, and below tail. White patch on chest, not exceeding ½ square inch, permissible. Disqualifying Fault: Dogs not of an allowed color.
Free, balanced, and vigorous, with good reach in the forequarters and good driving power in the hindquarters. When trotting, there is strong rear-action drive. Each rear leg moves in line with the foreleg on the same side. Rear and front legs are thrown neither in nor out. Back remains strong and firm. When moving at a fast trot, a properly built dog will single-track.
Energetic, watchful, determined, alert, fearless, loyal and obedient. The judge shall dismiss from the ring any shy or vicious Doberman.
Shyness: A dog shall be judged fundamentally shy if, refusing to stand for examination, it shrinks away from the judge; if it fears an approach from the rear; if it shies at sudden and unusual noises to a marked degree.
Viciousness: A dog that attacks or attempts to attack either the judge or its handler, is definitely vicious. An aggressive or belligerent attitude towards other dogs shall not be deemed viciousness.
The foregoing description is that of the ideal Doberman Pinscher. Any deviation from the above described dog must be penalized to the extent of the deviation.
Overshot more than 3/16 of an inch, undershot more than 1/8 of an inch. Four or more missing teeth.
Dogs not of an allowed color.
Approved February 6, 1982
Reformatted November 6, 1990
Pinschers and Schnauzers
Molossers and Schnauzer Sennenhunde;
Section 1: Pinschers and Schnauzers with Working Test
Short Historical Overview:
The Dobermann is the only German breed, which bears the name of its famous first breeders Friedrich Louis Dobermann (Jan. 2, 1834 – Jun. 9, 1894). It is said that he was a tax collector, night watchman and also the city’s part-time dogcatcher. He had the authority to catch any free-running dog. From this reservoir, he bred some of the hardest dogs.
The most important contribution to the making of the Dobermann breed can certainly be attributed to the so-called "Fleischerhunde" (butcher’s dogs), which even then were already a relatively well-established breed. These dogs were a sort of forerunner to the Rottweiler of today, mixed with a type of shepherd, which was black with rust colored markings in the Thuringia area. Mr. Dobermann used a mix of these breeds in his breeding program of the 1870’s.
This gave him "his breed," in other words, working dogs, which were not only protective and alert, but also "man-sure." They were used heavily as guard and police dogs. In fact, the frequent use in the police force earned them the nickname "Gendarmenhunde" (police officer’s dog). In the hunt, they were used overwhelmingly to battle predators. With the aforementioned suppositions, it was nearly obligatory, that the Dobermann be already officially accepted as a police-dog breed at the beginning of this century. The Dobermann breed aims to be of medium size, strong and well muscled. Despite its substance, the lines of the body show elegance and nobility.
He should excel as companion, Schutzhund and working dog, as well as a dog for the family.
The Dobermann is of medium size, strong and well-muscled. He embodies the perfect picture of a dog, through his elegant lines, his proud carriage, his spirited temperament and the look of determination in his eyes.
Important Measurements (Proportions):
The body of the Dobermann appears nearly square; this applies especially to males. The length of the body (as measured from the front of the sternum to the extent of the hip joint) should not exceed the height of the dog at the withers by more than 5% in males and 10% in bitches.
The basic disposition of the Dobermann is friendly, peaceful, highly attached to the family and fond of children. The Dobermann must have medium temperament and medium sharpness. Furthermore, the Dobermann must show medium stimulus threshold. Aside from good tractability and work ethic, we also want to see working abilities, courage and hardness. Aside from a normal level of reactivity, particularly desirable traits are self-confidence and fearlessness.
The upper head is powerful and proportionate to the rest of the body. When viewed from above, the head appears to be a blunt wedge. Viewed from the front, the line between the ears should be nearly straight and shall not decline near the ears. The planes are nearly parallel and the upper plane at the occiput blends into the neck in a moderate arch. The brow bones are well developed without protruding. The frontal bone furrow is still visible. The occiput should not be too obvious. When viewed from the front and the top, the cheeks should not appear to project. The lateral arch of the upper jaw and the cheek bones should be in harmony with the overall length of the head. The muscles of the head are well developed and strong.
The stop is modest, but distinctly developed and visible.
The Nose edges are well developed, wider than round and with large open nostrils, but overall not protruding. Black dogs have a black nose; brown dogs have a slightly lighter colored nose.
The muzzle must be in proportion to the upper head and strongly developed. It is deep and the mouth openings should reach far to the molars. Good width of muzzle must also be apparent in the area of the upper and lower canines.
Flews should be tight and lie close to the jaws, thereby ensuring a tight closing of the mouth opening. The pigmentation of the flews is dark, while brown dogs are slightly lighter.
The upper and lower jaws are strong and wide. Scissors bite. 42 teeth according to the tooth diagram, normal sized.
The eyes are medium sized, oval and of dark color. Brown dogs may have slightly lighter coloring. Eyelids lie close and there is coat to the edges of the lids.
The high-set ear is carried erect and has been cut to a length that is in proportion to the size of the head. The uncropped ear is equally accepted and should be of medium size, with the inner edges lying close to the cheeks.
The neck should be in proportion to the head and body and of good length. It is dry and well-muscled. The neck rises with a moderate arch. Its carriage is upright and shows a lot of nobility.
The withers should protrude in height and width – especially in males – and thereby determine the rise of the topline.
The back should be short and hard, of good width and well-muscled.
Of good width and well-muscled. The bitch can be slightly longer in the loin area, as this would be conducive to carrying puppies.
The croup should slope slightly, but hardly visibly from the hipbone to the base of the tail. It thereby appears well rounded, is neither straight, nor extremely sloping. Good width and well muscled.
The length and depth of the chest must be in proportion to the length of the rump. It should reach in depth nearly half of the dog’s height at the withers, with lightly arched ribs. The chest should have good width and be particularly developed towards the front (forechest).
From the end of the sternum to the pelvis, there should be an obvious rise of the abdominal wall.
The tail is high-set and docked to the second vertebrae. A natural undocked tail is also acceptable.
The front legs should appear nearly straight – in other words perpendicular to the ground, when seen from all sides and are well developed.
The shoulder blade is close to the ribcage, well-muscled on both sides of the bone and exceeds the ends of the ribs in height. It should be angled and well laid back, the angle to horizontal should be 50°.
Good length and well-muscled. The angle to the shoulder blade should be approximately 105° to 110°.
Close lying and not turning out.
Strong and straight, well-muscled. Length should be in harmony with the rest of the body.
Bones are strong and appear straight when viewed from the front. When viewed from the side there should only be a moderate incline (no more than 10°).
The paws are short and closed. The toes are arched ("catfeet"); nails are short and black.
When viewed from the rear, the Dobermann should appear broad and well rounded in the hip and croup area, due to his well developed pelvis muscles. The muscles, which run from the pelvis to the upper thigh and stifle, also give the upper thigh, knee area and stifle good appearance of breadth. The strong rear legs are straight and stand parallel.
Should have good length and width with strong musculature and good angulation at the hip joint. Angulation to horizontal should be approximately 80° to 85°.
The knee joint is powerful and supported by the upper thigh and stifle, as well as the knee cap. The angle of the knee should be approximately 130°.
Of medium length, and in harmony with the overall length of the rear leg.
The hock joints should be of medium strength and parallel. The stifles should meet the hocks at an angle of approximately 140°.
The hocks are short and stand perpendicular to the ground.
Rear paws should match front paws, with short, arched and tight toes. The nails are short and black.
The gait is an especially important feature, both for the dog’s working capacity as well as for the overall appearance. The gait is elastic, elegant, agile, free and has good reach. The front legs reach as far as possible. The rear legs reach far and elastic and afford the necessary thrust. The front leg of one side and the rear leg of the other side go forward at the same time. While gaiting, there should be good strength of the back, tendons and joints.
The skin is tight and well pigmented.
The coat is short, hard and thick. It is close to the body and smooth and evenly distributed over the body. Undercoat is not permissible.
The color is black or brown, with rust-red, sharply defined and un-mottled markings. The markings are located on the muzzle, as a spot on the cheeks, on the middle legs and paws, on the insides of the thighs and around the anus.
Size and Weight:
Height at the Withers:
68 to 72 cm (approx. 26¾" to 28¼")
63 to 68 cm (approx. 24¾" to 26¾")
Medium size is desirable.
40 to 45 kg (approx. 89 to 100 lbs.)
32 to 35 kg (approx. 71 to 78 lbs.)
Any deviation from the above standard should be viewed as a fault, whose valuation should be directly proportionate to the degree of severity.
Lack of sex characteristics, lack of substance, too heavy, too light, high-set, weak bones.
Too strong, too narrow, too short, too long, too much/not enough stop, rams-nosed, heavily sloping skull, weak underjaw, round or slit eyes, light colored eyes, heavy cheeks, loose flews, open or too deep set eyes, high or low set ears, open jaw/flew corners.
Slightly short, too short; overdeveloped ("wet") skin, too much dewlap, ewe-neck, too long.
Back not strong, sloping croup, dip in topline, rise in topline, too much or too little spring of ribs, not enough depth or width of chest, back too long, lack of forechest, tail-set too high or too low, tuck up too pronounced or lacking.
Too much or not enough angulation of the front or rear legs, loose elbows, length/position of bones not to standard, legs turning in or out in front, rear legs cow hocked, barrel legged or standing too close, open or soft paws, stunted toes, light colored nails.
Markings too light or not sharply defined, muzzle too dark, large black spots on the legs, hardly visible chest markings or chest markings too large, long, soft, lackluster or wavy coat, bare spots or areas of sparse coat, larger hair swirls especially on the body, visible undercoat.
Lack of self-confidence, temperament too high, sharpness too high, stimulus threshold too high or too low.
Size discrepancies up to 2 cm (approx. ¾ inch) above or below the standard are to be judged as a reduction in conformation rating.
Wobbly, tripping, hindered gait and pacing.
Pronounced reversal of sex characteristics.
Yellow eyes, different colored eyes.
Overshot, undershot, level bite and missing teeth.
White spots, exceptionally long or wavy coated dogs, exceptionally thin coats or bald spots.
Fearful, nervous and aggressive dogs.
Dogs which differ more than 2 cm (approx. ¾ inch) above or below the standard.
Males must have two normally developed testicles, fully descended into the scrotum.